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                                  Stainless steel fasteners

                                  Introduction

                                  Stainless steel fasteners are specified to BS EN ISO 3506. Part 1 covers bolts, screws and studs. Part 2 covers nuts. These specifications replace BS 6105. The latest edition was issued in 2009.

                                  Chemical composition for austenitic stainless steel fasteners

                                  The chemical compositions of the various fastener grades are shown in Table 1. The approximate equivalent grades in other systems are shown for reference. The composition ranges are much wider in this standard than in the standards for the feedstock product, usually bar.

                                  Table 1 Chemical composition for austenitic stainless steel fasteners

                                   

                                  Grade Chemical Composition1 (% maxima unless stated) Notes Alternative names
                                  C Si Mn P S Cr          Mo Ni        Cu
                                  A1 0.12 1 6.5 0.2 0.15/0.35 16-19 0.7  5-10 1.75-2.25 2 3 4 303S31, 303S42, 1.4305
                                  A2 0.1 1 2 0.05 0.03 15-20 -5 8-19 4 6 7 304, 394S17 (BS 3111), 1.4301, 1.4567
                                  A3 0.08 1 2 0.045 0.03 17-19 -5 9-12 1 8 321, 1.4541, 347, 1.4550
                                  A4 0.08 1 2 0.045 0.03 16-18.5 2-3 10-15 4 7 9 316, 1.4401, 1.4578
                                  A5 0.08 0.045 0.03  16-18.5 2-3 10.5-14 1 8 9 316Ti, 1.4571, 316Cb, 1.4580
                                  C1 0.09-0.15  0.05  0.03  11.5-14   - 9 410, 1.4006
                                  C3 0.17-0.25  1 0.04  0.03  16-18  1.5-2.5    431, 1.4057
                                  C4 0.08-0.15  1.5  0.06  0.15-0.35  12-14  0.6    2 9 416, 1.4005
                                  F1 0.12  1 0.04  0.03  15-18  -10   11 12

                                  430, 1.4016, 430Ti, 1.4520 430Cb, 1.4511

                                   

                                  Notes

                                  1. Values are maximum unless otherwise indicated.
                                  2. Sulphur may be replaced by selenium.
                                  3. If the nickel content is below 8 %, the minimum manganese content shall be 5 %.
                                  4. There is no minimum limit to the copper content provided that the nickel content is greater than 8 %.
                                  5. Molybdenum may be present at the discretion of the manufacturer. However, if for some applications limiting of the molybdenum content is essential, this shall be stated at the time of ordering by the purchaser.
                                  6. If the chromium content is below 17 %, the minimum nickel content should be 12 %.
                                  7. For austenitic stainless steels having a maximum carbon content of 0,03 %, nitrogen may be present to a maximum of 0,22 %.
                                  8. Shall contain titanium ≥ 5 × C up to 0,8 % maximum for stabilization and be marked appropriately in accordance with this table, or shall contain niobium (columbium) and/or tantalum ≥ 10 × C up to 1,0 % maximum for stabilization and be marked appropriately in accordance with this table
                                  9. At the discretion of the manufacturer the carbon content may be higher where required in order to obtain the specified mechanical properties at larger diameters, but shall not exceed 0,12 % for austenitic steels.
                                  10. Molybdenum may be present at the discretion of the manufacturer.
                                  11. May contain titanium ≥ 5 × C up to 0,8 % maximum.
                                  12. May contain niobium (columbium) and/or tantalum ≥ 10 × C up to 1 % maximum.  

                                  Mechanical properties for stainless steel fasteners

                                  Three 'property classes' are assigned to each of the austenitic stainless steel fastener grades. Table 2 shows the 0.2% proof stress, tensile strength and elongation values for each of these property classes.

                                  Table 2 Mechanical properties for austenitic stainless steel bolts, screws and studs

                                  Steel Group Steel Grade     Property Class Tensile Strength Rm1 min MPa 0.2% Proof Stress           Rp0.21 min MPa Elongation A2 min mm
                                  Austenitic

                                  A1, A2, A3, A4, A5

                                  50 500 210 0.6d
                                  70 700 450 0.4d
                                  80 800 600 0.3d

                                  Notes

                                  1. The tensile stress is calculated on the stress area
                                  2. To be determined on the actual screw length and not on a prepared test piece.

                                  This latest revision has removed the restrictions on the size of fastener (M24) for which the properties in table 2 can be guaranteed. However, there is a general clause which says that the standard is only applicable up to 39 mm diameter. Above that, the standard can still be used provided all parties agree that the properties can be achieved. The effect of these changes is to increase the maximum diameter on which the class 70 and 80 properties can be specified without discussion from 24 to 39 mm. This reflects the conservative nature of the previous 24 mm limit. Indeed, class 70 and 80 properties are available above 39 mm but this must always be discussed with the supplier. 

                                  Property class 50 represents the steel in the annealed condition.

                                  The most common and readily available supply condition is property class 70, which represents a 'cold drawn' for the bar stock from which the fasteners are made.

                                  Property class 80 is based on severely hard cold drawn bar.

                                  Some fasteners, depending on size and grade, can be supplied in an "unofficial" class A100 condition, i.e. with a minimum tensile strength of 1000 MPa. 

                                  All tensile stress values are calculated and reported in terms of the nominal tensile stress area of the thread.

                                  The elongation measurement is determined on the actual bolt or screw length and not on a prepared test piece. It is expressed in millimetres (mm) of extension and not as percentage elongation, i.e. A = (L2 - L1)
                                  (where L1 = original length and L2 = length after fracture)
                                  d = nominal diameter of bolt, screw or stud

                                   

                                  Table 3 — Mechanical properties for bolts, screws and studs – Martensitic and ferritic steel grades

                                   

                                  Steel group Steel
                                  grade
                                  Property
                                  class
                                  Tensile Strength Rm1 min MPa 0.2% Proof Stress Rp0.21 min MPa Elongation A2 min mm Hardness
                                  HB HRC HV
                                  Martensitic C1 50 500 250 0.2 d 147/209     155/220
                                  70 700 410 0.2 d 209/314 20/34 220/330
                                  1103 1100 820 0.2 d  - 36/45 350/440
                                  C3 80 800 640 0.2 d 228/323 21/35 240/340
                                  C4 50 500 250 0.2 d 147/209  - 155/220
                                  70 700 410 0.2 d 209/314 20/34 220/330
                                  Ferritic F14 45 450 250 0.2 d 128/209  - 135/220
                                  60 600 410 0.2 d 171/271  - 180/285
                                  1. The tensile stress is calculated on the stress area
                                  2. To be determined on the actual screw length and not on a prepared test piece
                                  3. Hardened and tempered at a minimum tempering temperature of 275 °C
                                  4. Nominal thread diameter d ≤ 24 mm

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